'No more business as usual,' Lebanese MP tells France by RFI | Free Listening on SoundCloud
To this end, a group of international experts from a range of disciplinary backgrounds met for two days in December, The list of participants and agenda of the meeting are provided in the see Additional file 1. This paper summarizes the outcomes of that meeting. Presentation is multi-modal including either text and talking or text and graphical materials. Goals set for the target behaviour are aligned with personal and organizational priorities. Goals for target behaviour are specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, time-bound.
Conversely, feedback is less effective when it comes from a regulatory body, agreeing with qualitative work suggesting that feedback perceived to be potentially punitive appeared less effective than a supportive approach [ 15 , 20 ]. Aside from exerting social pressure, in-person delivery of feedback could allow for tailoring of the message according to recipient characteristics. This type of process appears to offer a potentially important and readily testable hypothesis.
Green goals for companies: 'No more business as usual'
In part, this may be because recipients are more likely to perceive the data as relevant and accurate when it is delivered closer in time to their own performance [ 9 ]. Specifically, the theory of planned behaviour emphasizes the potential for social pressure to influence intentions to change professional practice [ 23 ]; this could help explain why feedback delivered by senior colleagues tends to be more effective than feedback delivered by unknown investigators.
When feedback is delivered via written reports, a preferred approach to the inclusion of normative data for comparison has been identified through a large head-to-head trial [ 24 ]. The Cochrane review indicated that feedback is most effective when targeting performance with large room for improvement. This may be attributed to larger discrepancy with the comparator, resulting in greater intention to take action, or may reflect the absence of ceiling effects, or both.
In addition, the likelihood of feedback identifying a discrepancy between actual and ideal care leading to changed behaviour may depend upon the degree to which recipients believe they have control over that behavior and are committed to change [ 11 ]. Feedback should describe achievable behaviors that are ideally desired by the recipient and implementable by the member s of the healthcare team responsible for enacting the desired change [ 15 ]. An observational study showed that clinical practice recommendations rated as incompatible with clinician values and norms were associated with lower compliance at baseline but greater behavior change following feedback than recommendations perceived as highly compatible [ 26 ].
The Cochrane review findings that feedback interventions were more effective when they included explicit goals and an action plan are not surprising [ 3 ]. This is consistent with theories [ 11 , 13 ] positing that goals can make feedback more salient and action plans specify and facilitate the steps required to achieve goals. When goals are more specific, this process is more effective [ 9 ]; ideal goals are commonly considered to be specific, measurable, achievable, relevant and time-bound [ 27 ]. From a cognitive perspective, receipt of feedback that indicates a discrepancy between expected and actual performance may generate a response described as cognitive dissonance [ 12 ].
In this case, participants may attempt to reduce the discrepancy by planning to improve [ 13 ] or by undermining the saliency of the discrepancy by discounting the data or the goals targeted as invalid [ 16 ].
If theory is used, it allows the evaluation of mechanisms of action, thereby contributing to an understanding of why any observed effects occurred. For example, at the individual level, increasing self-efficacy [ 30 — 32 ] and goal commitment [ 11 , 33 ] is likely to increase performance. This has implications not only with respect to potential contextual effect modifiers, but for the design of the intervention itself: the ideal number and nature of goal-directed behaviours targeted by the feedback may vary by setting and by the organizational level at which the feedback is directed.
For example, managers may be able to assimilate and act on a greater number of topics than frontline clinicians, but may lack direct control over specific behaviors.
- Loves Second Chance.
- Navigating a Fractious World.
- Business As Usual Is No Longer an Option – Brink – The Edge of Risk.
For example, if circumstances dictate that the delivery of feedback cannot be repeated in a reasonable timeframe, extra attention should be paid to other aspects of the intervention to ensure that discrepancies between actual and desired practice are salient and actionable. In addition, co-interventions, tailored to overcome identified barriers and boost facilitators, may help if feedback alone seems unlikely to activate the desired response [ 35 ]. This gives the opportunity to investigate potential synergy between multiple implementation strategies. Theory and evidence should be made explicit with respect to proposed design choices when manipulating the design of individual intervention components, and the expected mechanisms of action should be justified to aid interpretation.
Additionally, further knowledge regarding potential effect modifiers is needed. Example research topics for optimizing audit and feedback. However, it is increasingly clear that the conversation is not over.
Get the RNZ app
The public is becoming more skeptical of companies that produce fossil fuels, including oil, gas and coal, a trend seen most clearly in young people. They also said the companies should pay for at least a portion of the damage caused by carbon pollution, from rising sea levels to extreme weather events. Energy companies, and specifically oil and gas companies, remain a major force in the Houston economy. Not all fossil fuels are terrible at this moment, but we need to be looking toward the future.
Many people either work in the industry or know someone who does.
- Business as usual is no longer good enough?
- Youre Mine Vol.2 (Manga Comic Book Graphic Novel)!
- 'No more business as usual,' Lebanese MP tells France by RFI | Free Listening on SoundCloud?
- Expedition Rangers Handbook?
- Birmingham Canals!
- Explore topics!
- Unraveling the Elusiveness of Maya: Womens writing in India!
But the industry is undergoing a transformation known as the Great Crew Change , an industry-wide gap in middle-level managers stemming from the oil bust of the s. Older workers are retiring, and younger workers must decide whether to take their place. Although our findings may not generalize to the entire U. The survey relied upon three complementary strategies: 1 It directly asked students about their attitudes toward corporate social responsibility and environmental stewardship; 2 Respondents were randomly assigned to one of three informational conditions, allowing us to identify how information about environmental practices affects perceptions of environmental issues and initiatives; and 3 It used an empirical strategy that presented respondents with a choice of two job hypothetical job profiles that varied by pay scale, energy sub-industry and environmental stewardship.
Ryan is interested in issues of energy access, sustainability, technology, and governance.
Annabel Short, Deputy Director, Business & Human Rights Resource Centre
We represent University of Houston students and faculty, appointed as UH Energy Fellows from across the energy-related colleges to ensure the subject is covered from a We represent University of Houston students and faculty, appointed as UH Energy Fellows from across the energy-related colleges to ensure the subject is covered from a w We are thought leaders in energy from the University of Houston.
Post written by Pablo Pinto and Ryan Kennedy. Share to facebook Share to twitter Share to linkedin. Houston, Texas, USA downtown park and skyline at twilight. Prior to joining the University of Houston in , Pinto was a member of the faculty of Columbia University.
He also worked as Chief Counsel for Toyota Argentina. Pinto holds an M.