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L'art de la guerre – sun-tzu

Despite the jingoistic discourse, reading the press made the war supportable for men at the front and limited the sense of animalization that came with combat and their living conditions. Soldiers read when operations allowed the papers to reach the front and when they were mentally receptive: it was a humanly restorative moment.

The press united the front and back in a common culture; it reintroduced the temporality and spatiality of peace time, making the anomy and violence of war mere parentheses. Lastly, news lifted the soldiers from their atomized perception of the war and provided a broader understanding of events. That is why they read abundantly in March , when peace on the Eastern front and the renewal of the German offensive upended the stakes of the war of attrition.

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In reality, they were quite distrustful of what they read, [39] which ultimately led to the creation of trench newspapers. Beyond the hierarchical, social and cultural differences of the writers, these papers were a reflection of the mentality of combat, of the osmosis between soldiers and of " war culture " at the front. The first newspaper written in the trenches likely appeared in September , following the battle of the Marne.

The war of attrition encouraged their flourishing from to mid and an emulation effect between the different papers: in , the combined print runs ran between 75, and , copies per month. Although they were not a mass phenomenon, trench newspapers point up the need that existed among soldiers for leisure activities, and their relationship with information. And yet all were patriotic; some were even quite bellicose and anti-German, as illustrated by the title Bochofage "The Boche Eater".

The main goal was to testify about events at the front Le Crapouillot before soldiers, civilians and History. To do so, it was necessary to be close to the action, enemy, danger and all of the associated emotions and living conditions. Finally, like all activities at the front that involved an audience, there was a secret desire for recognition bound up in this war journalism.

Of the trench newspapers, 50 percent were written by non-commissioned officers - like the Trenchman Echo by Corporal Guillaume Apollinaire - and only 2 percent by field officers. Trench newspapers were predominantly published in France [45] where they were written on the front lines, although combat and troop movement occasionally interrupted their publication, sometimes indefinitely.

Trench newspapers therefore made sense only when they were published for and by small groups of men who knew each other well, shared the same ordeals and spent all of their time together. They were apolitical and expressed the emergence of a war culture, the need for expression of a community close-knit by the war, cut off from the real world and frustrated with the existing means of communication.

Prior to March , their authorization depended solely on superiors, who were most often benevolent and occasionally even helped launch the papers e. Le Canard poilu , February It reappeared for good, every Wednesday, starting on 5 July Its non-conformist editorial line and complete independence it refused all advertising and financial support ensured its widespread success. It went from 40, to , copies between July and the immediate post-war period. While its form resembled other newspapers, its content and tone were very unique: readers could never predict what an article would be about.

The style played on a mixing of genres essentially via the use of antiphrasis. It was as such both an opinion paper and a "comic publication"; it created caustic irony by combining text with illustrations by Henri-Paul Gassier ; it was both patriotic and pacifistic, without ever being defeatist; readers had to decipher innuendos that were pieced together like a semantic puzzle, made up of jokes and allusions full of double sometimes triple entendre, and that were full of references from both learned and lay culture, constantly toing-and-froing between truth and falsehood.

Its pugnacious critique targeted the central powers, whereas it unconditionally supported the soldiers, which meant that it was an entirely patriotic paper. Its favourite target, however, was civilian war hawks whose aggressive discourse was particularly intolerable given that they faced no direct risk. A second leitmotif was peace that refused to come. Although it claimed to be a counter-publication, the military authorities and police did not consider it to be a pacifist publication.

It was treated like the other mainstream papers and, although it was censored numerous times, its run was never interrupted following its second publication date. Why, then, is the persistent image that of a muzzled press and intrusive, dictatorial censorship?

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Firstly, newspapers were discredited for their initial chauvinistic period which left its mark on the public and on soldiers in particular. To distinguish themselves from such practices, journalists founded a Union in March [47] and adopted a code of ethics that was the only one of its kind in Europe. Thirdly, it took some time in this troubled era for democracy to find the right balance between the necessary control of information and the democratic principles of freedom.

Finally, mental representations were essential: soldiers suffered from the excesses of a chauvinistic press that had no real project, and newspapers suffered from the pernickety demands of censors who were nonetheless poorly obeyed. That is why post-war society largely overlooked the suffering inherent to the texts sent by soldiers to the press, the realism of their published photographs and the pugnacity of the counter-discourse that existed.

In the pacifist communion surrounding the post-war trauma, it was easier to make the press and censorship responsible for the great carnage to which the nation had consented, in large part fully aware of what was happening. International Encyclopedia of the First World War, ed.

DOI : Translated by: Serveau, Jocelyne. Version 1. Albums-photos des soldats au repos, Paris The official information conveyed cinematographically was clearly propagandist in nature. Conflicts and Representation, London , pp. Revue bleue 11, , pp. Bihl, Laurent: 'Sans pardon '.

Dramaturgie du politique 12, , pp. Delporte, Christian: Les journalistes en France, Douglas, Allen: War, memory, and the politics of humor. Histoire et culture, Paris Bayard, pp. Sizeranne, Robert de la: La caricature et la guerre , in: La Revue des deux mondes 33, , pp. Metadata Subjects.

Author Keywords. GND Subject Headings. LC Subject Headings. Rameau Subject Headings. Regional Section s. Thematic Section s. Images ! Les Assassins! Everyday heroism. Malancourt front during the battle. A coincidental snapshot. Organization of censorship in France at the end of Related Articles. External Links. All Partners. Beacon Index. Resisting the industrialization of the book, they are usually limited editions 20—50 copies. Strachan uses the term livre d'artiste to distinguish the twentieth-century book from its earlier realizations. Michel Butor also uses the term to designate his own production, more than books produced in collaboration with artists.

The principal studies in the field are essentially historical, presenting a chronicle and inventory of the livre d'artiste. Finally, the livre objet , as a limit-form of the artists book, both references and resists the form and function of the book.

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Definitions remain open to challenge, nevertheless. On the one hand, Moeglin-Delcroix proposes an exclusive definition of the artists book, limiting it to the s—s thus leaving out works such as Jean Dubuffet's Ler dla campane , although it has all the characteristics of the artists book — text and illustrations were produced by the artist, who published the book in his own imprint, L'Art brut. Focus on the material book has developed with more recent scholarship on materiality in the avant-garde informed by art critics like Rosalind Krauss and Yves-Alain Bois , and with growing interest in genetic criticism.

Bindings, in single copies or limited editions, enhance the book as a material object, appealing not only to the eyes but also to the sense of touch. The recurrent image of the hand on Paul Bonet's bindings for surrealist books, for instance, underscores the tactile quality of the book. While little critical attention has actually been given to bookbinding, 29 the tactile qualities of the book have been celebrated by both critics and artists.

Notre corps tout entier entre en danse. Because of its existence as a novel semiotic reality, combining two distinct yet related modes of expression, studies of individual collaborations have to date only tentatively contributed to a critical methodology of the livre d'artiste. Among recurrent images one encounters those relating to architecture, music and light Samson-Le Men , but also weaving and alchemy.

This type of rhetoric should not be dismissed as merely subjective, however; its frequency suggests it should be considered in a critical light. A more objective, because historically grounded, approach has been to situate the livre d'artiste within its contemporary literary and artistic context. Work in this group identifies a common denominator such as a historical style or thematic or iconic analogies. Studies of cubist, Futurist or surrealist books, for example, have explored a common paradigm that unifies texts and images — cubism and collage, Futurism and simultaneity, surrealism and the disjunctive image.

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Moreover, as an example of a homogenizing discourse, it contrasts with the aesthetics of difference, discussed below. Whereas inter-art comparison links poem and painting through analogy, semiotic analysis proposes homological links between verbal and pictorial elements, grounded on similar or parallel structures. Perrol argues that text and image share similar structures, such as mise en abyme , intertextuality, quotation, collage. The important literature in critical theory on the opposition between poetry and painting, from Lessing to Foucault and Deleuze, underlines the irreducibility of seeing and saying, showing and telling, display and discourse.

Are we dealing with two realities or a single reality? Is the double being created metaphorical or literal? Are words and images complementary or hybrid? Critics often develop an organic metaphor of the generative process in this context to account for the close relations, within difference, between two heterogeneous modes of expression. In her discussion of Parler seul , for example, R. Je me mets, si l'on peut dire: dans les pas de la main.

Within the critical field, the livre d'artiste has been thoroughly chronicled and inventoried, definitions tirelessly questioned, and analysis of individual collaborations meticulously elaborated. Yet a number of questions relating to the field remain open. These questions concern, first, issues relating to the material book: what is the role of the lithographer, the engraver, the printer, the bookbinder, in the production of the book?

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  • To what extent does the material specificity of the work inform its meaning? How does the discursive framework provided by specific display techniques inform the reception of the livre d'artiste? Second, a number of methodological issues raised by the co-presence of word and image on the page remain to be explored further: for example, to what extent can post modernist theories of collage and montage contribute to a critical analysis of the livre d'artiste? Finally, on a more general level, since the s academic research, particularly in the UK and the USA, has undergone a shift from the relative autonomy of disciplines to a growing interest in intermediality.

    French academia, for a time more reticent, is also adopting cross-disciplinary approaches: witness for example the recent conference Le Livre et l'artiste Marseilles, Le Mot et le reste, , which brought together specialists from the fields of book history, art and literary studies, as well as artists and publishers. Yet the critical field still remains largely pluridisciplinary, an accumulation of distinct fields of knowledge, as yet only tentatively interdisciplinary.

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